The Butterfly Effect: Conservation Easements, Climate Change, and Invasive Species

Author(s): James L. Olmsted

Type: Article | Year: 2011

This Article explains that one of the consequences of climate change will be migrations of species from their native habitats to newer habitats, typically to the north, with climates similar to those in which such species evolved. These in-migrating species will in many cases be invasive, forcing the native species to out-migrate or be driven to extinction, thereby causing biodiversity loss. As many of these disrupted ecosystems may be protected by perpetual conservation easements, the Article discusses the negative legal consequences of incursions by non-native species on these existing conservation easements. Accordingly, the Article suggests a number of changes that can be made to future conservation easements to help insure their protection of land in perpetuity and to better protect species and their habitats from the effects of climate change-caused migrations.

Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change

Author(s): Carla M. Sgrò, Andrew J. Lowe, Ary A. Hoffmann

Type: Article | Year: 2010

Evolution occurs rapidly and is an ongoing process in our environments. Evolutionary principles need to be built into conservation efforts, particularly given the stressful conditions organisms are increasingly likely to experience because of climate change and ongoing habitat fragmentation. The concept of evolutionary resilience is a way of emphasizing evolutionary processes in conservation and landscape planning. From an evolutionary perspective, landscapes need to allow in situ selection and capture high levels of genetic variation essential for responding to the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We summarize ideas that need to be considered in planning for evolutionary resilience and suggest how they might be incorporated into policy and management to ensure that resilience is maintained in the face of environmental degradation.

Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations

Author(s): Nicole E. Heller, Erika S. Zavaleta

Type: Report | Year: 2008

Climate change creates new challenges for biodiversity conservation. Species ranges and ecological dynamics are already responding to recent climate shifts, and current reserves will not continue to support all species they were designed to protect. These problems are exacerbated by other global changes. Scholarly articles recommending measures to adapt conservation to climate change have proliferated over the last 22 years. We systematically reviewed this literature to explore what potential solutions it has identified and what consensus and direction it provides to cope with climate change.

Beyond Kyoto: Forest Management in a Time of Rapid Climate Change

Author(s): Reed F. Noss

Type: Article | Year: 2001

Policies to reduce global warming by offering credits for carbon sequestration have neglected the effects of forest management on biodiversity. I review properties of forest ecosystems and management options for enhancing the resistance and resilience of forests to climate change. Although forests, as a class, have proved resilient to past changes in climate, today’s fragmented and degraded forests are more vulnerable. Adaptation of species to climate change can occur through phenotypic plasticity, evolution, or migration to suitable sites, with the latter probably the most common response in the past.

Assessment & Planning for Ecological Connectivity: A Practical Guide

Author(s): Keith Aune, Paul Beier, Jodi Hilty, Fraser Shilling

Source: Wildlife Conservation Society | Type: Manual / Guide | Year: 2011

Assessing species vulnerability to climate change

Author(s): Michela Pacifici et al.

Type: Article | Year: 2015

The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species’ vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species’ climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. Read More >

Approaches to Evaluating Climate Change Impacts on Species: A Guide to Initiating the Adaptation Planning Process

Author(s): Erika L. Rowland, Jennifer E. Davison,

Type: Manual / Guide | Year: 2011

Assessing the impact of climate change on species and associated management objectives is a critical initial step for engaging in the adaptation planning process. Multiple approaches are available. While all possess limitations to their application associated with the uncertainties inherent in the data and models that inform their results, conducting and incorporating impact assessments into the adaptation planning process at least provides some basis for making resource management decisions that are becoming inevitable in the face of rapidly changing climate.

The application of a hierarchical, decision-support system to evaluate multi-objective forest management strategies: a case study in northeastern British Columbia, Canad

Author(s): Seely et al

Source: Forest Ecology and Management. 199(2-3): 283-305. | Type: Example / Case Study | Year: 2004

ncreases in the environmental awareness of global consumers coupled with pressure from regional stakeholders has forced forest managers to demonstrate the potential implications of forest management activities for a broad range of indicators. This paper describes the construction and application of a hierarchical decision-support system for evaluating multi-objective management options for a 288,000 ha forest in northeastern British Columbia. The decision-support system includes a stand-level model, a forest estate model, a habitat model and a visualization model.

Adaptation Strategies Guide for Water Utilities

Author(s): EPA

Source: EPA 817-K-11-003. Office of Water, United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. | Type: Manual / Guide | Year: 2012

Adapting your system and operations to climate change challenges requires consideration and planning. How­
ever, adaptation planning is not necessarily a new effort, distinct from other utility practices. Because adapta­tion strategies can often provide multiple benefits, adaptation planning can be integrated into emergency response planning, capacity development, capital investment planning, water supply and demand planning, conservation practices, and infrastructure maintenance.

Adaptation to Climate Change in the Transport Sector: A Review

Author(s): Klaus Eisenack, Rebecca Stecker, Diana Reckien, Esther Hoffmann

Source: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. Potsdam, Germany | Type: Review | Year: 2011

The paper identifies the literature that deals with adaptation to climate change in the transport
sector by means of an extensive search, and presents a systematic review of the publications. Although it is frequently claimed that this socially and economically important sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change, there is comparatively little research into adaptation by industry, utilities and settlements. The 63 sources we found are analysed following an action theory of adaptation that distinguishes different adaptational functions. A very heterogeneous set of adaptations is identified and the actors and means of adaptation are classified by an open coding procedure. The paper shows that a broad diversity of actors is relevant for adaptation in the transport sector – ranging from transportation service providers to public and private sector actors and private households. Most adaptations discussed in the literature require inputs in the form of technical means, institutional means, and knowledge. The review shows that the existing iterature either focuses on overly general and vague proposals, or on detailed technical measures. The paper
concludes that the knowledge on adapting transport to climate change is still in a stage of infancy
and suggests fields for further research.